Long-awaited escalator repairs to begin next week – The Concordian – News.

After nearly 18 months of discussion, tenders and preparations, Concordia’s infrastructure project for the replacement of the Hall building’s escalators will begin on Jan. 17.

The $12 million project is to be funded by Quebec’s Infrastructure Program, and will be undertaken in collaboration with KONE, a company with a global presence in the elevator and escalator industry.

The old escalators are being replaced with “technologically advanced escalators,” according to Shelagh Peden, information and project coordinator from Concordia’s internal communications department. KONE is also currently in the midst of training its team of employees in the latest replacement techniques.

The work is to be divided into four different phases which will obstruct a certain number of floors at a time, Peden explained. The first phase, scheduled to last until August, will cover much of the east side of the Hall lobby, around the space that the Tim Hortons restaurant occupied. Concordia’s internal communications and facilities management departments will be posting updates at the beginning of each phase on the NOW events website.

The replacement of the currently unreliable escalators will come as a relief to the many students who dealt with their constant breakdowns over the last decade. Speaking to the Concordian last fall, political science student Avinash Razack recounted his experience of five or six escalators all not functioning at the same time. “If you’re paying so much money for tuition fees you expect the little things to work,” he said.

The project is scheduled for completion in 2013.

Murder Plans – Good Omens!

Posted: January 7, 2011 in Uncategorized

From Canadian capital city, Ottawa, the Murder Plans emerge in 2007, as a four-member soft rock garage band. Three years later, September 2010, they launch an absolutely delicious debut album titled Good Omens. As the first of the eleven songs compiled on the album, “Someday I won’t” prepares the listener for an enchanting atmosphere. Funky, swingy and slightly jazzy, the album is crafted as pure pleasure – the exact pleasure that was to be expected from this uniquely styled band. Connor McGuire and Michael Simon are lead singers to gloomy and sensitive lyrics. The Murder Plans work their magic by mixing a typical guitar, bass, drums and keys, and transforming them into a most unusually mellow and captivating sound. Remarkable songs include “Ghost Story”, “Chorus Girls” and “Napoleon”. An overall delight for the ear… and soul!

Human nature entails us, by definition, to strive for the best. Considerable progress in several – all- aspects of human life have been made, in attempt to ameliorate the quality of our lives, and of society, in general.  Politics are one of the many aspects which have been in a constant evolution and transformation, ever since their emergence as a necessity in our lives. The Greeks proclaimed a democratic system, while Medieval Europe functioned according to the feudal hierarchy. These are only examples of the multiple states and transformations of political structures across history, around the world. There is no such thing as a perfect political structure, and there are still on-going debates about the ups and downs of each.

Absolute democracy claims political leaders to be chosen, among the citizens, by the citizens. The procedure by which a leader is decided upon is referred to as an election. Before assessing whether or not an electoral system, the Canadian electoral system, needs restructuring, one has to define it, first.  An electoral system is a set of rules that “prescribes how citizens’ preferences, expressed through votes, are translated into seats in the legislative assembly” (Archer et al., 2002). Elections must take place on a regular basis, in order to ensure the quality and continuity of political representation. In Canada, the set election date is the third Monday of October, every four calendar years (Kenji, 2010). In the necessity of an exceptional election, under considerable circumstances, the Governor General issues a writ of election which identifies the date on which an election will be held (Archer et al. 2002).

Although, for many decades, scholars have argued both in favour and against the Canadian electoral reform, deciding upon a winning strategy requires careful consideration of the following aspects: the current electoral system and its ups and downs, along with the alternative proposed model, and its possible outcomes.

The Canadian electoral system functions under the single-member plurality system. The country is divided into 308 federal electoral regions (Alvarez-Rivera, 2010). The district magnitude of the single member plurality system is one (Scala, 2010). Therefore, each region, also referred to as a constituency, elects a single representative, who obtains a seat in the House of Commons. The party with the majority of seats becomes the governing party (Kanji, 2010). This being said, a majority of public votes is arbitrary, and therefore slightly insignificant.  It regularly happens that “the leading party’s candidates […] account for only […] 40 per cent of the popular vote and yet capture a majority of […] seats in the Commons” (Brooks, 2009).

While “Canada’s electoral system is recognized worldwide for its fair, free and competitive elections” (Knaji, 2010), hundreds of scholars across the country demand an electoral reform (Studlar, 2005). On one hand, the single member plurality electoral system creates strong and stable governments.  It provides the citizens, and the government with a simple and effective way of casting and counting votes, nation-wide, ensuring a speedy way of declaring a winner. The other major advantage of the current electoral system is its ability of establishing relationships between the elected and the represented (Kanji, 2010). Competing representatives need to gather votes from the greater possible number of citizens. A considerable aspect of campaigning means, therefore, going around the constituency and winning one vote at a time.  Candidates hold public speeches, shake hands, and advertise themselves throughout the region, allowing and ensuring their direct contact with the electors. These being said however, why is it that “only a handful of the world’s advanced democracies still uses [the single member plurality system]” (Milner, 2001)?

The main critique of our current electoral system however, remains the “vote-to-seat ratio [distortion]” (Kanji, 2010). The political representation of our country, the number of seats allocated to each party, is most influenced by the demographical distribution across constituencies. Therefore, parties with less than the majority of the public votes often times end up with more than the majority of seats in the House of Commons. It is very rare that a winning candidate would gather a majority of votes (Scala, 2010). This gives place to the lack of proportionality of representation, as “small shifts in the overall popular vote can have a significant impact on seat totals” (Jansen, 2008). In the 1993 election, the Conservatives, who obtained 46% of the public vote, were allocated only two parliamentary seats, since their representatives had only won in two of the 308 constituencies.

The single member plurality system works well in governments of two competing political parties. Although this had been the case in Canada, from 1867 to 1921, it does no longer apply (Jansen, 2008).  Duverger’s law presents a second critique of the single member plurality system: its plurality leads to the creation of a two-party system, in which small parties and their candidates are greatly penalized (Scala, 2010). Over time, these parties will find it “too costly to enter a competition in which they have little chance, if any, of success” (Scala, 2010). This gives the impression that small parties have no or little support across the country, when in fact they account for a considerable percentage of the votes (Brooks, 2009). Because they appeal to several interests widely distributed across the country, small parties generally receive “a smaller percentage of seats than votes” (Brookes, 2009).  Advocates of this system believe that a legislature with few parties tends to be much more effective than a fragmented parliament. Therefore, “rather than reducing the number of parties to fit the requirements of an archaic electoral system, wouldn’t it make more sense to adopt a system that recognizes the diversity of political views that Canadians already hold” (Jansen, 2008)?

The commonly proposed alternative electoral system would be a mixed proportional representation system. Combining part of the single member plurality system with the proportional representation system, seems ideal. The general idea behind this system is that the “number of members elected by each party [coincide] with its share of the popular vote” (Brooks, 2009), while protecting the voter-elected relationship. Under this system, each constituency would elect a representative, just as they do currently. Additionally, however, voters would cast a second ballot, electing a leading political party, which may or not correspond to the political affiliation of their representing leader. Furthermore, parties would allocate additional MPs, determined from party lists, in an attempt of equalling their number of seats, with the percentage of public vote obtained (Jansen, 2008).

There are several advantages, to this proposition. First of all, a mixed proportional representation would “better reflect the ideological positions of Canadians, as more parties with ideologically distinct positions would stand a better chance of being represented in the House of Commons” (Kanji, 2010). Due to its permissive nature, this electoral system would encourage and sustain the survival of smaller political parties, as they’d have a concrete chance of obtaining legislative representation (Scala, 2010). A strong supporter of the mixed proportional representation system is the New Democratic Party of Canada, as they believe that such a system would better represent its electors (Kanji, 2010). Another advantage of the mixed proportional representation electoral system is argued to be the greater voter-turnout. In recent elections, Canadian citizens have reached record lows. Although this cannot be attributed solely as the downfalls of the current electoral system, the alternative model has better chances at increasing voter-turnout (Jansen, 2008).

However, this alternative does not come without its own downfalls. Critiques argue that such a system would create greater ideological polarization, since all political ideologies could potentially hold a seat in the House of Commons. Consequently, Canadians would have a more unstable government, as one party’s chances of obtaining the majority of votes lessens (Kanji, 2010).

Advocates of the proportional representation system argue that “providing adequate representation to the widest possible range of political views is much more important in a democracy than governmental effectiveness” (Scala, 2010). The mixed proportional representation, however, allows for some members of parliament to be elected on the basis of the single member plurality rules, while other are elected on the basis of some sort of proportional representation of the public vote, thus maintaining a balance between the two different systems.

In conclusion, I believe that the Canadian electoral system is in need of some sort of restructuring. However, in order to maintain the crucial relationship between an elector and his representative, careful attention must be paid to this restructuring. While both systems present considerable advantages and downfalls, the mixed proportional representation system offers both some form of relationship, while clearly representing the public vote, as would be expected in a democracy.


Brooks, S. (2009). Canadian Democracy (6th ed.). Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press

Kenji, M. (2010). Elections [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Jansen, H. (2008). Considering the 2008 Election Results: Canada’s Electoral System Needs to
be Replaced. Mapleleafweb. Retrieved from http://www.mapleleafweb.com/blog/harold-

Elections Canada (2010). Canada Elections Act. Retrieved from

Milner, H. (2001). Is It Time to Change Canada’s Electoral System? Beaver, 81(6), 6. Retrieved
from Academic Search Complete database.

Studlar, D. (2005). Steps Toward Making Every Vote Count: Electoral System Reform in
Canada and its Provinces. American Review of Canadian Studies, 35(3), 582-584.
Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Scala, F. (2010). Political Parties and Electoral Systems [Study notes]. Retrieved from

Archer et al. (2002). Parameters of Power: Canada’s Political Institutions (3rd ed.). Scarborough, ON:
Thomson Nelson.

Alvarez-Rivera, M. (2010). Election Resources on the Internet: Federal Elections in Canada – Elections to
the House of Commons. Retrieved from http://electionresources.org/ca/.

Posted: December 10, 2010 in Uncategorized

Human life does not allow for perfection. There is no relationship without ups and downs, as there is no rose without thorns. Romantic, idealistic, and impossible.  Our lives’ incapacities of perfection are due, in great part, to the relativistic nature of our thinking. What might seem ideal to one, might not seem so to another. Additionally, the little perfection that we are taught to allocate importance to is, in fact, possible in theory, but impossible in practice.  Take, for example, democracy: we would all love an equalitarian society. But, when you think about it, there really isn’t one!


Posted: December 9, 2010 in Uncategorized


The technological advancements done in the past few decades have, without a doubt, improved our efficiency and overall quality of life. Indisputably, however, technology also has its downfalls. More than half daily computer users experience some level of discomfort and injury (Wei, 2004).

We represent ARTHOKEY, a new company which will sell an add-on keyboard to chairs’ armrests. This add-on consists of a revolutionary keyboard that will enable office workers to not only increase efficiency but, most importantly, will dramatically decrease physical stress discomfort and injury – notably the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Ever felt numbness, tingling or burning sensations in your thumb and fingers (Wikimedia, 2010)? If so, you may be developing CTS.  Arthokey’s keyboard helps in its prevention by splitting the conventional keyboard into two halves, each half being added onto the armrest of the chair our consumer will be sitting on. Arthokey will be easily adjustable and detachable to all office chairs’ armrests.

Our target market consists of the adult population which uses desktop or laptop computer for work – various businesses and work places – as well as students, who use their computers for typing essays hours at a time. Due to what has now become the norm in our society – the use of computers to manage our daily tasks – we expect our product to incorporate itself into this norm and become a core office product all the while infiltrating itself into our homes.

Why do we believe this will be a hit product? Our keyboard’s design is revolutionary, in an attempt of improving overall quality of life of computer users. The average lifetime expectancy of a standard computer keyboard is three to five years (Elliott, 2010). This means that there is a constant supply and demand of hardware. Customers looking for improved quality – hello Arthokey!

Macroenvironmental Impacts

Before launching a new product into the overly globalized market, our company should assess the multiple macroenvironmental factors influencing our sales potential.  Arthokey doesn’t only represent a revolutionary keyboard design; it also plays an important role in shaping our modern culture. There are five major macroenvironmental factors that should be taken into consideration: the technological, demographic, environmental, economic, and cultural aspects of our society (Kotler et al.2010).

Arthokey is, at its most basic, a computer keyboard. This revolutionary keyboard’s success will be first and foremost determined by the technological environment that we live in. Life is quite comfortable in the 21st century. Not only do we have access to a virtually infinite amount of information, but we have instant access to it, now! Our efficiency levels have gone up the roof, compared to a century ago, or to any other time period in history. The technological advancements made in the past few decades have unarguably made our life easier, more comfortable. However, despite its remarkable success, the technological market is an unstable one. “New technologies create new markets and opportunities” (Kotler et al. 2010), but as new technologies appear, old ones fade away. Technology is, by nature, in a constant growth and evolution.

Our main competition will be companies like Acer, HP, Razer, and IMB, which are already well-established keyboard providers. Arthokey has to carefully assess these previously marketed keyboards, and improve them. How are we doing that? We are offering our customers not only a keyboard, but a disease-preventing keyboard, at affordable prices. This is our plus; this is why we are better than our competition. Our keyboard will be the only one of its kind on the market, which is why we expect it to have a revolutionary effect. We believe that 20 years from now, all keyboards will be ergonomic and repetitive motion related injuries and illnesses caused by computer typing will be on the decline. Unfortunately, Arthokey isn’t fighting an already won battle. We have to make sure that our product will be rightfully promoted and marketed, in order to ensure our place on the market, and our advantage over competition products.

Our marketing campaign must emphasize our keyboard’s most interesting features: its innovative impact, its CTS prevention abilities, and its easy-to-use operational factor. Arthokey promotes an innovative product, because it is the first one of its kind on the market. This product will actively prevent repetitive motion related injuries and illnesses, such as CTS, by offering its customers a rotating ergonomic keyboard, which will enable them to type in a more efficient and healthy way. The Arthokey keyboard is easy-to-use, yet still very efficient. It is easily attachable and detachable on any office chair’s armrests. Our sales representatives will teach customers about its installation process, and we will include an instructional guide with every keyboard. Our clients will also receive a training package, teaching them the basics of body motion co-ordination in typing with both hands on separate parts of the computer keyboard. If marketed effectively, these aspects will give us a definite advantage over our present and potential competition, as clients will be inclined to buy the Arthokey keyboard, instead of other standardized ones.

Arthokey must also consider our demographic environment. Our keyboard is mainly aimed towards computer users. Who does this include? Today, almost everybody. However, in the introductory phase, we will be focusing our marketing strategies on customers whose occupation entails them to the daily use of a computer, hence of a keyboard. These people occupy a variety of positions in our society: secretaries, editors, novelists, customer service representatives, and the list goes on. After our keyboard will become a well-established product on the market, we will extend our marketing to all computer users.

Arthokey targets both the so-called Generation X and Generation Y, also known as the Milennials. The Generation X refers to the 7 million Canadians born in the “birth dearth” period of 1967 to 1976(Kotler et al. 2010). These citizens are now in their late thirties, early forties. The Milennials, on the other hand, are a generation younger, aged between 10 and 33 years old. Despite the several other positions occupied by older people, we believe that they will present greater resistance in the modification of their work routine. The Baby Boomers, which are not targeted as part of our main client base, have lived through some technological advancement, but their level of understanding and assimilating new technology is much lower. Additionally, their overall interest for technology is also very low. In their case, our revolutionary keyboard would encounter higher levels of reluctance, and would therefore prove to be a failure.

According to our research, our main clientele will be women on the job market occupying the mentioned operational positions. Women are three times more likely to suffer from a form of CTS and generally pre-disposed to it, due to their physiologically smaller carpel tunnel, in comparison to men’s (Wikimedia, 2010).  Our demographics will be further developed upon, in the later paragraphs.

Considering the environmental aspect of our product, we are aiming towards a recycled product. Most parts will be manufactured from recycled materials, in an attempt of protecting the surrounding world. The environmental trend has its arguments, and environmentalists have long since proved their point. We decided in favor of their cause, despite the higher manufacturing costs. We believe that the world around us should be cherished and protected, and that the recycling of materials plays a big role in its conservation.

Additionally, Arthokey provides the customers with a health-improving product, thus improving the quality of human life. Humans, like all living creatures are part of the natural environment despite their high intellectual quotient. Therefore, our CTS preventing keyboard will benefit the greater population and the world, in its entirety.

Arthokey also has to consider the Canadian economic environment. Our keyboard will be launched on the market as a defined product, with a well established purpose. Due to its revolutionary design, Arthokey’s keyboard will have economic monopoly in its particular technological branch, for a certain period of time. The launch of our keyboard has to be done during the ideal time period. Recovering from the major economic recession, Canadians are now raising back to their previous financial standings. We will be selling our product to affordable prices, because we believe that the Canadian population has not yet reached a complete economic recovery. Many people live below their social standards, due to the hard times that have only just recently come to an end. We must therefore market our keyboard as an absolute necessity to daily computer users, but keep a reasonable price tag on it.

At first, Arthokey will be manufactured by other companies, and sold under our company’s name. Since manufacturing and handling prices will be higher, the selling price of our keyboard will be slightly higher in the introductory phase. When our product becomes profitable enough and well-established on the market, Arthokey will have the resources necessary in order to manufacture its own products, thus being able to lower the selling prices. Additionally, when the keyboard will have gained a fundamental appreciation on the part of our customers, when it will have proved a success, we will have both the resources and the confidence necessary in order to develop and release further models.

Lastly, Arthokey has to assess the macroenvironmental cultural forces of our society. We live in a highly modernized world, where technology has become a standard of life. We believe that our product will revolutionize the 21st century culture. As mentioned previously, we believe that 20 years from now, all keyboards will resemble our currently innovative one.

Secondary Data

As stats indicate, sales for keyboards have been always there. Key Tronic is a good example, being the major player in the keyboard industry. They managed to have sales of $33 million in 1993 and $159.5 million in 1994 (Advameg Inc., 2010). This clearly shows that keyboards represent a large contribution in the market and that sales are prosperous. As Key Tronic revolutionized the way people type, we intend to do so, by introducing the next generation of ergonomic keyboards to an existing market.

Internet orders for goods and services in Canada increase every year, in 2007 they were at $12.8 billion CND and in 2009 sales reached $15.1 billion CND (Statistics Canada, 2008). Computer software remains the top ten selling product online by consumers [Table 1].This is why when we target our next focus group; we intend to promote our product by online marketing, giving us a larger segmentation to introduce Arthokey.

Arthokey’s sales potential during its introductory phase is directly related to the proportion of office workers who use keyboards many hours a day. In 2006, out of the 308 565 employed secretaries on the Canadian job market 302 145 of them were women (Statistics Canada, 2006). Comparatively, out of the 205 150 customer service representatives registered in the same census, 135 385 of them were women (Statistics Canada, 2006). Although the gender of the members of these occupations offers insight as to what our customer base will be, it also gives us a clue as to what to expect with regards to sales and revenue. Due to the “newness” factor of our product we have to reasonably expect a slow but gradual conversion of traditional keyboard users to the Arthokey keyboard, with a market share of the 513 715 above mentioned target market of 8% during the first year. Although a high expectation, it is reasonable as we have already established that the average life expectancy of a keyboard is three to five years which creates constant and regular demand for new keyboards with state-of-the-art technology. With our 8% market share of the approximately half-million employees spending full days typing on keyboards, the expected sales during our introductory phase – at the introductory price of $99.99 CAN as explained further – will be of $4 109 289 CAN. With increased market share and a reduced price will come increased revenue, which in turn will enable us to put an end to our dependency on other manufacturers to make our product – we will be able to invest in our own infrastructure and machines to produce our keyboards ourselves.


Through secondary data and market research we are able to determine which segments of the Canadian population would benefit from Arthokey – therefore enabling us to distinguish the types of people targeted by our product. Our product is a modern-day ergonomic keyboard. Therefore, people who type on keyboards for many hours a day, many days a week, consist of our main target. These people are secretaries, customer service representatives, interpreters for the blind or the hearing impaired, editors, novelists, stenographers and many others. Because Arthokey is a wellness product, target markets can also be expanded to those who use keyboards regularly without being as heavy users as the ones listed above – employees of human resources departments, students, researchers, administrative assistants, and so on.

The average age of the typical secretary most likely to adopt our product is below 45 years old. Older secretaries (50 to 64 years old) may offer more resistance towards changing the way they have typed at their desks for decades. However, through proper demonstrations and explanations of the benefits that will incur, both morally and especially physically due to their improved work environment, we are confident that they will be willing to try it – particularly the ones already feeling the effects of carpal tunnel syndrome. Since women are three times more likely than men to develop CTS (Wikimedia, 2010) and the data clearly showing that secretaries tend to be women (Statistics Canada, 2006), secretaries make up a vital target market.

Nowadays, most major service providing companies focus a lot of energy into customer service, as it is often the decisive factor in consumers’ choices for one company over its competitor. Because of this, there are customer service call centres distributed all over Canada’s major cities, particularly in Montreal. With comfort and efficiency being core values in today’s workplaces, customer service representatives have had the problem of holding phones to their ears for hours on end. This was resolved with the arrival of headsets, in 1910 (Wikimedia, 2010), designed to increase performance by leaving both hands free to typing. What they are still missing is the ability to type faster, more comfortably, and in a healthier manner. These call centres, which employ hundreds of agents at a time – male and female, with ages ranging from 18 to 45 years of age, are also vital target markets to Arthokey.

Following exposition of Arthokey in the workplace, and word of mouth from people in these occupational environments – our satisfied customers, we will be able to target more specific markets to add to the business driven marketing we had begun with. Phase two of our concentrated marketing strategy will be less focused on specific professions and will target men and women between the ages of 10 and 45, of all social classes, who care to have a more comfortable and enriching typing experience. Our goal is for our customers to become regular users who will benefit from the quality of our product and who will use it on an everyday basis, either in a work or home environment. First time users will never want to regress to an uncomfortable keyboard – a standard one, due to its lack of mobility.

Being a Montreal based company, we know better than other nation-wide entrepreneurs who overlook the importance of individuality and respect of others’ differences. Although the variations in designs and sizes of our keyboards will come in a few years, we will offer the choice of English, French-Canada and French-France keyboards to our consumers during our introductory phase, so as not to alienate customers who allocate significant importance to French accents and cedilles.

Marketing Mix

With our product development strategy, we will focus on a few market segments; rather than going after the whole market (Kotler et al. 2010). Arthokey’s main purpose is to raise companies’ awareness about the fact that their employees – our targeted clientele – can perform better and faster in two ways: first, by having the right posture to type; second, by adjusting the positioning of the keyboard – moving it closer to their hands. This will also reduce their chances of developing CTS, a syndrome commonly recurring in people that type, for several hours on a regular basis at a time, on a computer keyboard (NINDS, 2009). Companies will also benefit from our green environment product, made from recycled materials; they can proclaim themselves as environmental-friendly companies. Additionally, our keyboard will be wireless, reducing costs on electricity, saving companies numerous expenses.

Arthokey works with manageable strap, attached to the armrests of the chairs, promoting it as a user easy-to-use device. Our technicians will install Arthokey onto several office chairs throughout any given company, and will briefly train its technicians on how to attach and detach the straps. We will also provide consumers with a basic three year limited warranty that will cover parts, services and manufacturing defaults. They could also add extended warranties to the product, as will be offered by our representatives after the conclusion of the sale. Shipping and handling will be covered entirely by us, taking a weight off the customers’ shoulders.

Arthokey’s price in the introductory stage will be of $99.99 CND, covering the costs of manufacturing, selective distribution, sales promotion and advertising. It will then be reduced to $75.99 at the growth stage, given our increased revenue and market share. At this second stage of our product’s life cycle, we will invest more on advertising and promotion, given that we will have established ourselves in the market – having more revenues (Kotler et al. 2010), and considering the fact that we will be, by then, in direct, active competition with other keyboard providers. We aim for a 30% sales increase during the second year, thus insuring sufficient financial resources towards additional technological and promotional investments for our product.

First we intend to target the main cities of Canada – Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver and Calgary – mainly due to the strong presence of office administration (Government of Canada, 2010). Arthokey will be introduced by direct distribution from our representatives, highly trained and motivated individuals. We will provide free samples to reluctant companies. If necessary, we will rent commercial spaces, in order to promote and display our revolutionary keyboard. This will be our promotional kiosque. Placing sample keyboards at strategic places throughout the company will allow its employees to get a hands-on experience. Employees will be able to familiarize themselves with the functioning of the keyboard, and comprehend and promote its most obvious benefits.

After conquering the Canadian market, we will move onto larger markets, such as major cities of the U.S., England, Germany, and Japan – cities not yet determined. Our main branch office will be established in Montreal, giving us major distributive advantages –the city port.

Our main sale promotion strategy will be pushing the product, by any means possible, either with hard sales techniques and/or by incentive, giving businesses a 10% discount on every 40 units bought. We then intend to use direct marketing – mainly online (Kotler et al. 2010) – using the same place strategy. Building our own website will provide our company total control over our product.



Reference List (APA Style)

Advameg Inc. (2010). Key Tronic Corporation – Company profile, Information, Business Description,
History, Background Information on Key Tronic Corporation
. Retrieved from

Elliott, M. (2010). A computer’s life expectancy. Ask the Editors. Retrieved from

Government of Canada (2010). Invest in Canada – Business services. Retrieved from

Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Cunnigham, P. H., Trifts, V. (2010). Principles of marketing (8th ed.).
Toronto, Ontario : Pearson Canada.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2009). NINDS Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Information Page.
Retrieved from

Statistics Canada (2006). 2006 Census : Data products. Retrieved from http://miniurl.com/70027.

Statistics Canada (2008). E-commerce: Shopping on the Internet. Retrieved from

Statistics Canada (2010). Table 2 – Internet shopping, by type of online order. Retrieved from

Wei, N. (2004). Neck shoulder pain computer use. Arthritis-treatment-and-relief.com Retrieved
from http://www.arthritis-treatment-and-relief.com/neck-shoulder-pain-computer-

Wikimedia Foundation Inc. (2010). Carpal tunnel syndrome. Retrieved from

Wikimedia Foundation Inc. (2010). Headset (equipment). Retrieved from

Canada’s international reputation has always been an envious one. Widely considered as a multiculturalism leader, its cities are among the most ethnically diverse and safe worldwide (Krauss, 2005). It enforces high standards of education, commitment to human rights, humanitarian aid abroad and tolerance. The country has often times been referred to as a conciliator and peace-maker. Canada came in third, out of 179 countries, on the UN’s 2008 Human Development Index. Its citizens benefit from great health care, extensive access to knowledge, and high standards of living (The EI Group, 2010).

Due to its complex diversity, in terms of environment, economics, demographics, historical context, religious affiliations, language divide and constitutional division of power, Canada has always been a difficult country to govern. Canada’s persistent federalism and its consequent regionalism are also an important factor sustaining this difficult governance. These reasons will be further developed in the following paragraphs.

Its regionalism has made it difficult for political leaders to exercise a unified power throughout the country (Brooks, 2009). The difficulty of governance will be discussed in this paper, from the environmental, economical and demographic point of view.

Canadian territory consists of seven terrestrial ecozones, most of which benefiting from a vast accessibility to natural resources: the Arctic (1), the Rockies and the Pacific Coast (2), the Prairies (3), the Boreal Forest (4), the Mixedwood Plains (5), the Atlantic Maritimes (6) and the Hudson Plains (7). The Arctic (1) has more than 50% of the country’s oil resources, as well a great deal of power plants, from its large rivers. The Rockies and the Pacific Coast (2) are rich in foresting and mining. There are also various fish species swimming close to the coast. While the Prairies (3) are responsible for most of the country’s agricultural activity, the Prairies are also rich in oil resources. The Boreal Forest (4) provides for the timber and mining industry. Here, there are large rivers, as well, which provide for most of the hydroelectricity of the American East Coast. The Atlantic Maritimes (6) also have some oil resources, but they are mostly responsible for fishing. While most native tribes have established in the Mixedwood Plains (5), there are not many natural resources available in this ecozone. This is also the case of the Hudson Plains (7) (Kanji, 2010).

This natural diversity brought along national prosperity, and the illusion of a self-sufficient country. However, the scarcity and distribution of resources account for the inequalities in terms of wealth, throughout the different provinces. As an example, these inequalities account for the alienation of the western provinces. Political scholar Stephen Brooks (2009) says that “Ottawa treated the resources with which the West was well endowed, and which formed the basis for western prosperity, differently and less favourably than those located primarily in provinces like Ontario and Quebec”.

Canadian economics are closely related to the country’s resources. The inequities in regional economics derive from the differences in economic activity. There are three sectors of economic activity. The primary sector encloses the agricultural, fishery and mill communities. The secondary sector carries out the transformation of natural resources, while the tertiary sector is responsible for the provision of services throughout the country. The secondary and tertiary sectors account for 70% of Canada’s gross domestic product. The primary sector accounts for the remaining 30% (Kanji, 2010).

The secondary and tertiary sectors are mainly present in Quebec and Ontario. While Ontario is the most important car manufactory of North America, Quebec is the country’s most substantial hydro electrical provider. Additionally, both provinces are major contributors to the economic tertiary sector (Kanji, 2010).  Because to them alone, theses provinces contribute by nearly 70% to the country’s GDP, and because the government allocates importance and attention based on economic prosperity, the differences in prosperity generate political inequalities nationwide.

Canada has a vast territory, but a very low population density, scattered throughout four main concentration areas: the Extended Golden Horseshoe (1), Montreal and the Adjacent Region (2), the Lower Mainland and Southern Vancouver Island (3), and the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor (4).  While the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor has experienced the largest population growth rate in the past decade, most of Canada’s population is concentrated in the Extended Golden Horseshoe (6,704,598 inhabitants) and in Montreal and Adjacent Region (3,724,576 inhabitants). These areas are situated in Ontario, and respectively, in Quebec (Kanji 2010).

This population distribution has major political implications. Not only does this influence which values and ideologies should be prioritized by the government, but it also affects the effectiveness of political campaigns in these areas. Indeed, aspiring leaders are more likely to focus their campaigns in these provinces, rather than equally campaigning in all regions. Furthermore, the population distribution affects the political campaigns in terms of promises: a leader is more likely to make promises beneficent to these provinces’ economy.  Leaders are also prone to keeping more of these promises, rather than focusing on the few promises made towards the benefit of other provinces.

From a historical point of view, Canada’s difficulty of governance is quite justifiable. The Canadian territory has been colonized by the French and the British, both major conquerors of their times. These two countries presented differences in terms of historical and cultural backgrounds. It has been difficult for Canadian citizens, and some might argue that it still is, to combine and sustain a dualistic culture, and furthermore find benefits in it. From the historical point of view, there are also several issues associated with the territoriality, rights and responsibilities of Native Americans. Native Americans have, throughout history, been excluded or reprimanded from their rightful positions. This situation has been somewhat rectified in recent years, but tensions and contradictions are still very present on the political level.

The co-existence of two, or three, different cultures on a same geographical territory cannot, by nature, be an easy one. Conflicts arose, from an ideological point of view, in terms of values and beliefs. Throughout history, religious affiliations and languages have been the two major cultural conflicts in Canada.

While the British promoted Protestantism, the French empowered Catholicism. There are major differences between these two Christian branches. While the Protestants defy the Roman Catholic Pope’s authority and promote the Bible as the only sufficient and authoritative scripture, the Catholics promote and encourage Paparian religious governance and do not believe that the Bible is sufficient, as a scripture. Although religion has lost its governance power in the last decades, religious affiliations are encrypted in the culture’s origins, and several issues still remain contradictory. An example of political, yet slightly religious issue is the right of abortion and euthanasia. While both religions promote the right to life, and therefore reject abortion and euthanasia, a great deal of political debates resides in the leaders’ religious beliefs, about life and creation. To these, we must add a third religious affiliation: Native religion. Native Americans promote belief in natural environmental Gods, such as the Sun, the Moon and the Earth, and abide to rules that are unheard of in the Christian religion.

Another major cultural conflict resides in the country’s language divide. Initially colonized by the French, but conquered by the British, the French population has often times throughout history feared the loss of its language. Francophone people have lived in a constant fear of linguistic assimilation. This fear generated additional tensions and hostility between the British and French colonies. The Canadian constitution stipulates three official languages, which citizens are free to use to their desire (English, French, and Aboriginal). However, scholars argue that the French language will cease to exist in the next 50 years, due to the planet’s globalization and to the assimilation of English culture by present francophone citizens.


Conclusively, Canada is a difficult country to govern. Despite its impeccable international reputation, it has major internal flows, such as regional political inequalities. Because “the pendulum of federal-provincial power has swing from Ottawa to the provinces and back again several times since the Confederation” (Brooks, 2009), the country has an extremely unstable and fragmented political governance. Its vast diversity in terms of natural resources, economics and demographics refrain the unitary governance that we might aspire to.



Krauss, C. (2005, May 25). Was Canada Just Too Good to Be True? The New York Times

The EI Group – Schools in Canada.com : the network for International Students (2001-2010). Canada’s International Reputation. Retrieved from http://www.schoolsincanada.com/Canadas-International-Reputation-Saskatchewan.cfm, Sunday October 10th, 2010.

Brooks, S. (2009). Canadian Democracy (6th ed.). Toronto, Oxford University Press. Pages 102 to 105.

Kanji, M (2010). Lesson 2: Welcome to Canada [Power Point slides]. Retrieved from http://www.econcordia.com/courses/canadian_politics/lesson2/, Sunday October 10th, 2010.


In the past few years, the concept of globalization has been unarguably overly mediatised. Globalization is not a new phenomenon however, but it is only recently that scholars have started analysing it as an increasing and unavoidable reality of our modern lives. Globalization refers to the process by which regional economies and societies became, or are in the process of becoming, part of a universal state, sharing a same set of norms and regulations. Countries around the world compete on a global economic market, the English language has become standardized in most communities, and the Internet culture has grown overly successful. These are only some implications of the phenomenon. Although it has only gained considerable recognition towards the end of the twentieth century, globalization has been a slow undergoing process, shaping our everyday lives and the history of human beings, for centuries. “[Its most] influential aspect is the interdependence of market systems around the world” (Kim & Zurlo, 2009) . While scholars argue both in favour and against it, it is undeniable that globalization changes our perception of the world, by shaping the citizen-state relationship, thus directly influencing our understanding of citizenship and national identification in numerous ways. Globalization has brought upon us the decline of the welfare state and the increasing gap between the rich and the poor social classes. It has also contributed to the emergence of post-national organisations, the creation and evolution of a universal culture, and the on-going trend of multi-state allegiance (Tremblay et al. 2007).

One of the most controversial aspects of globalization is the decline of the welfare state. The welfare state is a concept of a governing political institution protecting and promoting the financial and social well-being of its citizens. Its main concerns are those of reducing poverty, equitably distributing wealth among its citizens, and providing support in case of unemployment or illness (Tremblay et al., 2007). Unfortunately, however, the capitalist nature of the global market system has pressured the participating governments in lowering their welfare resources, while allocating a greater portion of their resources towards the international market competition. In an attempt of stimulating economic development and foreign investments, countries have had to cut down on their taxes, though the very principle of equal social services and the well-being of the welfare state are founded by these taxes. Consequently then, with the lowering of taxes comes a decline in the quality of the welfare state.

Additionally, the participating governments’ desire of competing on the global market forces them to change and shape their social policies, favouring the market, rather than their citizens. “Over the last decade, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank have pressured countries to remove restrictions on capital flows” (Weissman, 2003). All in an attempt of attracting foreign investments, governments lower their standards to a minimum. In hopes of being the most profitable, and consequently stimulating the national and international economies, they market their territories and citizens as being the most indulgent and hassle-free. Aiming towards this very same purpose, governments are forced to lower their environmental standards (Tremblay et al., 2007).

While this economic competition might be profitable in some ways, it is most unfortunate for a single-state’s citizens. They see their social standards lowered by the political desire of enrichment and competition. The welfare state is on the decline, due to the unarguably high expectations of the global market.

The decline of the welfare state, along with the global desire of profit have brought upon citizens increasing gaps between the rich and the poor. Developed countries seek cheap labour sites, in the manufacturing of their products. Due to foreign policies, investing countries do not have to abide by national regulations of minimum wage salary and such. Therefore, “developing countries are (…) given the labour-intensive parts of the global production process” (Tremblay et al., 2007), and underpaid. These countries are not encouraged in stimulating their own economy, but are rather dependent on other countries’ investments on their territories. Globalization promotes their dependency and inability of self-sustainment, and leads to “greater wealth disparity between the developed and developing worlds” (Tremblay et al. 2003).

Additionally, low manufacturing costs in developing countries contribute to the wealth inequalities in developed countries. Low-skilled workers do not have jobs, because they are entitled to higher wages. Labour is not profitable here, so firms ‘set up shop’ elsewhere.  As labour-intensive production gets shifted to developing countries, the disparities between the rich and the poor in the developed countries will only be on the rise. “Globalization [is] the cause of the world’s growing inequalities and poverty” (Navarro, 2006). Vincent Navarro, professor and director of the Public Policy Program at the Johns Hopkins University, who found that the top 1 percent of the world population receives 57 percent of the total world income, also found that the income difference between the richest American citizens and the poorest has increased from 78 to 114 times between 1961 and 1999 (Navarro, 2006).

In an attempt of preventing social degradation, globalization has favoured the emergence of several post-national organisations, such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth Nations and the Organizations for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Their main concern became the protection of fundamental human rights. As the identification to the state becomes weaker and weaker, “several analysts argue that a new generation of rights is emerging, articulated, and fought for at the international level” (Tremblay et al. 2007). The decline of governmental attention and the rise of transnational political activism towards the protection of the environment and the promotion of human rights displaces the state as being the only possible leading affiliation. As people around the world seek identity and commitment in common transnational organizations, the line between what is a citizen of a certain country and what isn’t is increasingly blurred. Instead of national citizenship, people obtain a form of global citizenship, as state identification “is being replaced with a global conception of human rights” (Tremblay et al. 2007).

These organizations have benefited the emergence of a common global culture, in which people around the world come together and share similar lifestyles, languages, religions, values and occupational hobbies. The World Wide Web, aka the Internet, serves as a communication network accessible to all, where state boundaries are virtually inexistent. Some argue that the cultural changes resulting from the globalization process are in fact the ‘Americanization’ of the world. This is counter-argued by the idea of survival of the fittest, or the mediatisation and promotion of what used to be the wealthiest nation of all, during a period of several decencies, time during which globalization had made considerable progress. Either way, the globalization of culture lets us hope for a more peaceful world, as cultural barriers that have “traditionally divided peoples around the world” (Tremblay et al. 2007) disappear, allowing the creation of rich multicultural communities. An example would be the city of Montreal, merging together more that 120 cultural communities, who are unarguably mixing their cultural backgrounds in the sustainment and development of a single culture. Additionally, “proponents of globalization argue that economic interdependence will lead to the adoption of democratic values around the world” (Tremblay et al. 2007). While traditional cultures may lose part of their fundamental identities, the global culture favours the resolution of worldwide cultural conflicts and disagreements.

The assimilative nature of a global culture, along with the transnational market system caused significant increases in migration rates around the world. “Over the past decades, the forces of globalization have helped create a huge wave of immigration” (Qingwen, 2007). It is now easy to immigrate almost anywhere. The dynamics of human migration favour not only the stability of the global market, but the integration and sustainment of high living standards across the world. “We are witnessing the emergence of multi-tier citizenship, with individuals participating and pledging loyalty to more than one political community” (Tremblay et al. 2007). Nowadays, multi-citizenship has become a commonality.

In conclusion, the globalization process has strongly influenced the world we live in, in several ways. Its consequences are arguably both favourable and degrading to the human condition. This process has brought upon us the decline of the welfare state. It has increased the gap between the rich and the poor citizens of a country, and the wealth inequalities among different communities. It favoured the emergence of post-national organisations, and promoted the global integration and assimilation of a single, shared, culture. Lastly, it has favoured transnational immigration all around the world. While globalization has its downfalls, it is certain that it has shaped and will continue to shape the way we view political identification, culture, and human rights.



Tremblay, R. C., et al. (2007). Mapping the Political Landscape (2nd ed.). Toronto, Ontario:
Nelson – Thomson. (pp. 349-380, 427-447).

Kim, T., & Zurlo, K. (2009). How does economic globalisation affect the welfare state?
Focusing on the mediating effect of welfare regimes. International Journal of Social
, 18(2), 130-141.

Weissman, R. (2003). Grotesque Inequality: Corporate Globalization and the Global Gap
Between Rich and Poor. Multinational Monitor, 24(7/8), 9-17.

Navarro, V. (2006). The Worldwide Class Struggle. Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist
, 58(4), 18-33.

Qingwen, X. (2007). Globalization, Immigration and the Welfare State: A Cross-National
Comparison. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 34(2), 87-106.